10 Principles for Successful Instructed Language Learning  


      Taken from the publication Instructed Second Language Acquisition, commissioned by the New Zealand Ministry of Education and prepared by Professor Rod Ellis of the University of Auckland.

1. Instruction needs to insure that students develop both a rich repertoire of formulaic expressions and a rule-based competence.

2. Instruction needs to ensure that learners focus predominantly on meaning.

3. Instruction needs to ensure that learners also focus on form.

4. Instruction needs to be predominantly directed at developing implicit knowledge of the L2 (second, or foreign, language) while not neglecting explicit knowledge.

5. Instruction needs to take into account learners’ ‘built-in syllabus’.

6. Successful instructed language learning requires extensive L2 input.

7. Successful instructed language learning also requires opportunities for output.

8. The opportunity to interact in the L2 is central to developing L2 proficiency.

9. Instruction needs to take account of individual differences in learners.

10. In assessing learners’ L2 proficiency it is important to examine free
as well as controlled production.

The full text can be found at http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/6983/instructed-second-language.pdf

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